Just so

become easy to reproduce and therefore easy to replace. This is what Alphabet/Google and Apple demonstrate when they attack traditional value chain and business models with their digital platforms and services. Managing payments or the physical transport of goods within a value chain are typical examples for these changes. If you want to remain relevant in your value chain (that means: stay in business) you will need a differentiator (or “USP”) for your services. And in the digital world USP comes from – data.